Phase III, shown in Equation 3, is the time required for the orderwire to perform a hand-off. The current network control code determines RN to ES associations based on distance. When the distance between an RN and an ES other than its currently associated ES becomes smaller than the distance between the RN and its currently associated ES, the current ES initiates a hand-off by sending a HANDOFF packet. This takes 0.473 seconds. The RN will then initiate a point-to-point orderwire connection with the new ES. Finally, Phase II must be run again at the new ES, which is the reason for including the function P2.