Management information from standards-based managed entities must be mapped into this predictive network management system. Network management systems rely upon standard mechanisms to obtain the state of their managed entities in near real-time. These mechanisms, SNMP  and CMIP  for example, use both solicited and unsolicited methods. The unsolicited method uses messages sent from a managed entity to the manager. These unsolicited messages are called traps or notifications; the former are not acknowledged while the latter are acknowledged. These messages are very similar to messages used in distributed simulation algorithms; they contain a timestamp and a value, they are sent to a particular destination, i.e. a management entity, and they are the result of an event which has occurred.
Information requested by the management system from a particular managed entity is solicited information. It also corresponds to messages in distributed simulation. It provides a time and a value; however, not all such messages are equivalent to messages in distributed simulation and required in a predictive management system. These messages provide the management station with the current state of the managed entity, even though no change of state may have occurred or multiple state changes may have occurred. The design of a management system which requests information on the state of its managed entities at the optimum time has always been a problem in network management. If requested too frequently, bandwidth is wasted, if not requested frequently enough, critical state change information will be missed.
We will assume for simplicity that each managed entity is represented in the predictive management system by a Logical Process (LP). It would greatly facilitate system management if vendors provide not only the standards based SNMP Management Information Base (MIB) as they do now, but also a standard simulation code which models the entity or application behavior and can be plugged into the management system just as in the case with a MIB. Vendors should have models of their devices readily available from product development.