Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

The University of Kansas

EECS 784

3 credit hours

Comprehensive introduction to the fundamental science that is the basis for the architecture, design, engineering, and analysis of computer networks. Topics covered will include foundations on:

- Structure of networks: graph theory, centrality, spectral analysis, network flows, and network topology
- Identification of network entities: naming, addressing, indirection, translation, and location
- Operation of protocols and information transfer: automata, control theory, layering and cross-layering, Petri nets, protocol data units
- Policy and tussle: game theory, decision theory
- Resilience: dependability (reliability, availability, and maintainability), performability, fault tolerance, and survivability

This course is under continued development and this course page will be incrementally populated and updated.

EECS upper-level eligibility and engineering GPA ≥ 3.0 (for undergraduates), graduate standing, or permission of the instructor.

A networking class such as EECS 563 or 780 is *not* required as
a prerequisite. However, these courses provide useful understanding
on the application of the material in this course to the Internet.

EECS 784 will meet *one* evening a week on the Lawrence Campus;
a discussion session meets only as necessary for rescheduled lecture sessions.

Detailed information about individual offerings of this course will be located on the following pages, including schedule and homework assignments.

- Spring 2020: KU EECS 784 (planned for Lawrence Campus)
- Spring 2019: KU EECS 784 (Lawrence Campus)
- Spring 2017: KU EECS 784 (Lawrence Campus)
- Spring 2016: KU EECS 700 (Lawrence Campus)
- Spring 2013: KU EECS 690 and 800 (Lawrence Campus)

Generic course information and the latest version of the lectures are located this page below. Current and past SCN students, as well as other seriously interested parties are welcome to request to join the EECS 784 Facebook group and add the Google+ page.

Lecture | Reading | ||
---|---|---|---|

Subject | Key Concepts | Required | Optional |

Administrivia SCN-AE | – | – | – |

Preliminaries SCN-PM | – | – | – |

Graph Theory SCN-GT | – | – | – |

Network Topology and Graph Spectra SCN-TS | – | – | – |

Regular Networks SCN-RN | – | – | – |

Random Graphs SCN-RG | – | – | – |

Small-World Networks SCN-SW | – | – | – |

Scale-Free Networks SCN-SF | – | – | – |

Routing and Network Flows SCN-RF | – | – | – |

Tusskle and Game Theory SCN-TG | – | – | – |

Fault-Tolerance,, Dependability, and Resilience SCN-FT | – | – | – |

Identification and Addressing SCN-ID | – | – | – |

Protocols, Automata, Control Systems, and Layering SCN-PR | – | – | – |

**N**

M.E.J. Newman,

*Networks: An Introduction*,

Oxford, 2010

Ernesto Estrada and Philip A. Knight,

Oxford, 2015

**L**

Ted G. Lewis,

*Network Science: Theory and Applications*,

Wiley, 2009

**D**

John Day,

*Patterns in Network Architecture: A Return to Fundamentals*,

Prentice Hall Pearson, 2008

*There will be required readings from this book for SCN-ID and SCN-PR.
It is on reserve in Spahr Library, but you may wish to obtain your own copy
for convenience.*

[EK2010]

David Easley and Jon Kleinberg,

*Networks, Crowds and Markets: Reasoning about a Highly Connected World*,

Cambridge, 2010

[BBV2008]

Alain Barrat, Mark Barthélemy, Alesandro Vespignani,

*Dynamical Processes on Complex Networks*,

Cambridge, 2008

[DM2003]

S.N. Dorogovtsev and J.F.F. Mendes,

*Evolution of Networks: From Biological Nets to the Internet and WWW*,

Oxford, 2003

[E2012]

Ernesto Estrada,

*The Structure of Complex Networks: Theory and Applications*,

Oxford, 2012

[N2003]

M. E. J. Newman,

“The Structure and Function of Complex Networks”,

*SIAM Review* vol.45, no.2, pp. 167–256

[NBW2006]

Mark Newman, Albert-Lásló Barabási, and Duncan J. Wattseditors,

*The Structure and Dynamics of Networks*,

Princeton, 2006

[D+2005]

Charles B. Duke, *et al.*,
Committee on Network Science for Future Army Applications,

*Network Science*,

National Academies Press, 2005

[D2010]

Reinhard Dietsel,

*Graph Theory*, 4th ed.,

GTM 173, Springer, 2010

[GY1993]

Jonathan L. Gross and Jay Yellen,

*Graph Theory and its Application*, 2nd ed.,

Prentice Hall, 1993.

[W2001]

Douglas B. West,

*Introduction to Graph Theory*, 2nd ed.,

Prentice Hall, 2001

*This text has been used in KU MATH 725.*

[V2009]

Vitaly I. Voloshin,

*Introduction to Graph and Hypergraph Theory*,

Nova Science, 2009

[MN2000]

John N. Mordeson and Premchand S. Nair,

*Fuzzy Graphs and Fuzzy Hypergraphs*,

Physica-Verlag Springer, 2000

[BH2012]

Andries E. Brouwer and Willem H. Haemers,

*Spectra of Graphs*,

Springer, 2012

[M2011]

Piet Van Vieghem,

*Graph Spectra for Complex Networks*,

Cambridge, 2011

[B1965]

V.E. Beneš,

*Mathematical Theory of Connecting Networks and Telephone Traffic*,

Academic Press, 1965

[RF1987]

Daniel A. Reed and Richard M. Fujimoto

*Multicomputer Networks: Message-Based Parallel Processing*,

MIT Press, 1987

[DKS1991]

Chris Dhas, Vijaya K. Konangi, and M. Sreetharan, editors

*Broadband Switching: Architectures, Protocols, Design, and Analysis*,

IEEE Computer Society Press, 1991

[B2001]

Béla Bollobás

*Random Graphs* 2nd edition,

Cambridge Press, 2001

[W1999]

Duncan J. Watts

*Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks between Order and RandomnessRandom Graphs*,

Princeton, 1999

[C2007]

Guido Caldarelli

*Scale-Free Networks: Complex Webs in Nature and Technology*,

Oxford, 2007

[AMO2006]

Ravindra K. Ahuja, Thomas L. Magnanti, and James B. Orlin,

*Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications*

Chapman & Hall / CRC, 2006.

[MR2007]

Deep Medhi and Karthik Ramasamy,

*Netework Routing:
Algorithms, Protocols, and Architectures*,

Morgan Kaufmann / Elsevier, 2007.

[PM2007]

Michał Pióro and Deepankar Medhi,

*Routing, Flow, and Capacity Design in Communication and Computer Networks*,

Morgan Kaufmann Elsevier, 2004

[KMJ200]

Anurag Kumar, D. Manjunath, and Joy Kuri,

*Communication Networking: An Analytical Approach*,

Morgan Kaufmann Elsevier, 2004

[O2004]

Martin J. Osborne,

*An Introduction to Game Theory*, 2nd. ed.

Ocford, 2004.

*This text has been used in KU ECON 590.*

[BA1992]

Roy Billinton and Ronald N. Allan,

*Reliability Evaluation of Engineering Systems:
Concepts and Techniques*, 2nd. ed.

Plenum, 1992.

[G2004]

Wayne D. Grover,

*Mesh-Based Survivable Networks: Options and Strategies for Optical,
MPLS, SONET, and ATM Networking*,

Prentice Hall, 2004.

This list under construction.

[ALRL2004]

Algirdas Avižienis, Jean-Claude Laprie, Brian Randell, and Carl Landwehr,

“Basic Concepts and Taxonomy of Dependable and Secure Computing”,

*IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing*, vol.1, no. 1, Jan. 2004, pp. 11 33

[ASBS2000]

L. A. N. Amaral, A. Scala, M. Barthélémy and H. E. Stanley,

“Classes of Small-World Networks”

*PNAS*, vol.97, no.21, pp. 11149–11152, Oct. 10 2000

[BBR+2012]

Lars Backstrom, Paolo Boldi, Marco Rosa, Johan Ugander, and Sebastiano Vigna,

“Four Degrees of Separation”

*arXiv*, arXiv:1111.4570v3, Jan. 2012

[BA1999]

Albert-Láaszió Barabási and Réka Albert,

“Emergence of Scaling in Random Networks”

*Science*, vol.286, Jan. 2012, pp. 509&endash;512

also in [NBW2006]

[BJ2009]

Anirban Banerjee and Jürgen Jost,

“Spectral
Characterization of Network Structures and Dynamics”,

*Dynamics On and Of Complex Networks*, Birkhäuser Boston Springer, 2009, pp. 117–132

[BKM+2000]

Andrei Broder, Ravi Kumar, Farzin Maghoul, Prabhakar Raghavan, Sridhar Rajagopalan, Raymie Stata, Andrew Tomkins, Janet Wiener,

“Graph structure in the Web”

*Computer Networks*, Elsevier, vol.33, iss.1–6, June 2000, pp. 309–320

[CARS2012]

Egemen K. Çetinkaya, Mohammed J.F. Alenazi, Justin P. Rohrer, and James P.G. Sterbenz,

“Topology
Connectivity Analysis of Internet Infrastructure Using Graph Spectra”

*IFIP/IEEE RNDM 2012*, Skt. Peterburg, Oct. 2012, pp. 115–121

[CJKÖ2004]

Jon Crowcroft, Richard Gibbens, Frank Kelly, and Sven Östring,

“Modelling Incentives for Collaboration in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”

*Performance Evaluation*, Elsevier, vol.57, iss.4, Aug. 2004, pp. 427–439

[CWJ2003]

Philip A. Chou, Yunnan Wu, and Kamal Jain,

“Practical Network Coding”

*41st Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing*, Oct. 2003

[CSWF2003]

David D. Clark, Karen R. Sollins, John Wroclawski, and Ted Faber,

“Addressing Reality: An Architectural Response to Real-World Demands on the Evolving Internet”

*ACM SIGCOMM FDNA Workshop*, Karlsruhe, Aug. 2003, pp. 247–257

[CWSB2002]

David D. Clark, John Wroclawski, Karen R. Sollins, and Robert Braden,

“Tussle
in Cyberspace: Deﬁning Tomorrow’s Internet”

*ACM SIGCOMM 2002*, Pittsburgh,

*ACM SIGCOMM CCR*, vol.32, no.4, Oct. 1999, pp. 347–356

[D1980]

Danthine, Andrée,

“Protocol Representation with Finite-State Models&rdquo

*IEEE Transactions on Communications*,

vol.28 no.4, Apr. 1980, pp. 632–642

[DAL+2005]

John C. Doyle, David L. Alderson, Lun Li, Steven Low, Matthew Roughan, Stanislav Shalunov, Reiko Tanaka, and Walter Willinger,

“On
The ‘Robust Yet Fragile’ Nature of the Internet”

*PNAS*, vol.102, no.41, pp. 14497–14502, Oct. 11 2005

[EFL+1999]

Robert J. Ellison, David A. Fisher, Richard C. Linger, Howard F. Lipson, Thomas A. Longstaff, and Nancy R. Mead,

*Survivable Network Systems: An Emerging Discipline*,

Carnegie-Mellon Software Engineering Institute Technical Report CMU/SEI-97-TR-013, 1997 revised 1999

[F1978]

Linton C. Freeman,

“Centrality in Social Networks: Conceptual Clarification”

*Social Networks*, Elsevier, vol.1, no.3, pp. 215–239, 1978/1979

[FBW2006]

Christina Fragouli, Jean-Yves Le Boudec, and Jörg Widmer

“Network Coding: An Instant Primer”

*ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review*, vol.36, no.1, Jan. 2006, pp. 63–68

[FF1956]

L.R. Ford, Jr. and D.R. Fulkerson,

“Maximal Flow through a Network”

*Canadian Journal of Mathematics*, University of Toronto Press, vol.VIII, no.3, pp. 399–404, 1956

[FFF1997]

Michalis Faloutsos, Petros Faloutsos, and Christos Faloutsos,

“On
Power-Law Relationships of the Internet Topology”

*ACM SIGCOMM 1999*, vol.11, no.3, pp. 19–36, Sep. 2008

*ACM SIGCOMM CCR*, vol.29, no.4, pp. 251–262, Aug. 1999

also in [NBW2006]

[H2008]

Geoff Huston,

“The Changing Foundation of the Internet:
Confronting IPv4 Address Exhaustion ”

*The Internet Protocol Journal*, vol.11, no.3, Sep. 2008, pp.19–36

[HRI+2008]

Hamed Haddadi, Miguel Rio, Gianluca Iannaccone, Andrew Moore, and Richard Mortier,

“Network
Topologies: Inference, Modeling, and Generation”

*IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials*, vol.10, no.2, 2nd quarter, pp. 48–69

[KS2006]

Rajesh Krishnan and David Starobinski,

“Efficient Clustering Algorithms for Self-Organizing Wireless Sensor Networks”,

*Ad Hoc Networks*, Elsevier,

vol.4 iss.1, January 2006, pp. 36–59

[LV1962]

R.E. Lyons and W. Vanderkulk,

“The Use of Triple-Modular Redundancy to Improve Computer Reliability”

*IBM Journal of Research and Development*, vol.6, no.2, Apr. 1962, pp. 200–209

[M1992]

John F. Meyer,

“Performability: A Retrospective and Some Pointers to the Future”

*Performance Evaluation*, Elsevier North-Holland, vol.14, no.3–4, Feb. 1992, pp. 2139–156

[MCM+2013]

Aniket Mahanti, Niklas Carlsson, Anirban Mahanti, Martin Arlitt, and Carey Williamson,

“A Tale of the Tails: Power-Laws in Internet Measurements”

*IEEE Network*, vol.27, no.1, Jan. 2013, pp. 59–64

[MMG+2007]

Alan Mislove, Massimiliano Marcon, Krishna P. Gummadi, Peter Druschel, and Bobby Bhattacharjee

“On
Measurement and Analysis of Online Social Networks”

*ACM IMC'07*, San Diego, Oct. 2007, pp. 29–42

[MRWZ2004]

Ratul Mahajan, Maya Rodrig, David Wetherall, and John Zahorjan

“Experiences Applying Game Theory to System Design”

*ACM ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Practice and Theory of Incentives in Networked Systems PIMS'04*, Portland, Sep. 2004s, pp. 183–190

[MS1980]

David W. Matula and Robert R. Sokal

“Properties of Gabriel Graphs Relevant to Geographic Variation Research and the Clustering of Points in the Plane”

*Geographical Analysis*, Wiley, vol.12 iss.3, Jul. 1980, pp. 205–222

[MW2001]

Allen B. MacKenzie and Stephen B. Wicker

“Game Theory and the Design of Self-Configuring, Adaptive Wireless Networks”

*IEEE Communications*, vol.39 iss.11, Nov. 2001, pp. 126–131

[MVLB2014]

Robert Meusel, Sebastiano Vigna, Oliver Lehmberg, and Christian Bidner,

“Graph Structure in the Web – Revisited: A Trick of the Heavy Tail”

*ACM WWW 2014*, Seoul, Apr. 2014, pp. 427–432

[N2005]

M. Naldi,

“Connectivity of Waxman Topology Models”

*Computer Communications*, Elsevier, vol.29 iss.1, Dec. 2005, pp. 24–31

[NWS2002]

M. E. J. Newman, D. J. Watts, and S. H. Strogatz,

“Random Graph Models of Social Networks”

*PNAS*, vol.99 supl.1, Feb. 2002, pp. 2566–2572

[NYW2003]

Pekka Nikander, Jukka Ylitalo, and Jorma Wall,

“Integrating Security, Mobility and Multi-Homing in a HIP Way”

*ISOC Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS)*, Feb. 2003, no.6

[OAS2010]

Tore Opsahl, Filip Agneessens, and John Skvoretz,

“Node Centrality in Weighted Networks: Generalizing Degree and Shortest Paths”,

*Social Networks*,

vol.32 iss.3, July 2010, pp. 245–251

[R1985]

Harry Rudin,

“An Informal View of Formal Protocol Specification”

*IEEE Communications*,

vol.23 no.3, Mar. 1985, pp. 46–52

[SHC+2010]

James P.G. Sterbenz, David Hutchison, Egemen K. Çetinkaya, Abdul Jabbar, Justin P. Rohrer, Marcus Schö, and Paul Smith,

“Resilience and Survivability in Communication Networks: Strategies, Principles, and Survey of Disciplines”

*Computer Networks*, Elsevier

vol.54 iss.8, June 2010, pp. 1245–1265

[SHC+2012]

James P.G. Sterbenz, David Hutchison, Egemen K. Çetinkaya, Abdul Jabbar, Justin P. Rohrer, Marcus Schö, and Paul Smith,

“Redundancy, Diversity, and Connectivity to Achieve Multilevel Network Resilience, Survivability, and Disruption Tolerance”

*Telecommuniction Systems*, Springer

accepted Apr. 2012

[SK2001]

James P.G. Sterbenz and Rajesh Krishnan,

“Multi-Modal Routing and Switch Node Architecture”

*DARPA / DOE / NASA / NIST / NLM / NSF Workshop on New Visions for Large-Scale Networks: Research and Applications*,

Vienna VA, Mar. 2001

[SRC1984]

Jerome H. Saltzer, David P. Reed, and David D. Clark,

“End-to-End Arguments in System Design”,

*ACM Transactions on Computer Systems*,

vol.2, iss.4, Nov. 1984, pp. 277–288

[T1998]

Jonathan S. Turner,

“Design of a Broadcast Packet Switching Network”

*IEEE Transactions on Communications*,

vol.36 iss.6, June 1988, pp. 734–743

also in [DKS1991]

[TGJ+2002]

Hongsuda Tangmunarunkit, Ramesh Govindan, Sugih Jamin, Scott Shenker, Walter Willinger

“Network
Topology Generators: Degree-Based vs. Structural”

*ACM SIGCOMM'02*, Pittsburgh, Aug. 2002, pp. 147–159

[TM1969]

Jeffrey Travers and Stanley Milgram

“An Experimental Study of the Small World Problem”

*Sociometry*, ASA, vol.32, no.4, Dec. 1969, pp. 425–443

[WS1989]

Richard W. Watson

“The Delta-t Transport Protocol: Features and Experience”

*IEEE LCN*, Oct. 1989, pp. 399–407

[WS1998]

Duncan J. Watts & Steven H. Strogatz

“Collective Dynamics of &lquo;Small-world&rquo; Networks”

*Nature*, vol.393 no. 6684, Jun. 1998, pp. 440–442

also in [NBW2006]

[WWH+2005]

Wen-Xu Wang, Bing-Hong Wang, Bo Hu, Gang Yan, and Qing Ou

“General Dynamics of Topology and Traffic on Weighted Technological Networks”

*Physical Review Letters*, APS, vol.94 no. 18, 13 May 2005, pp. 188702-1–188702-4

[ZCD1997]

Ellen W. Zegura, Kenneth L. Calvert, and Michael J. Donahoo,

“A Quantitative Comparison of Graph-Based Models for Internet Topology”,

*IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking*,

vol.5 iss.6, December 1997, pp. 770–783

Grading will be based on the average of letter grades assigned to
the various course components. The midterm exam grade will be
based on a modified curve in which students are grouped
by modes in the distribution. *Final* grades at KU do not have
the + and – modifiers. Employer reimbursement and immigration status
*cannot* be a consideration in the final grade.

Grade | Meaning |
---|---|

A | excellent performance |

B | good performance |

C | marginal performance |

F | non-performance or academic misconduct |

If you are having difficulty in the class I strongly recommended you discuss this early and not wait until exam time. Students are responsible for understanding course drop policies and deadlines.

weight | component |
---|---|

30% | 2 section exams |

20% | participation in discussion |

20% | paper presentation and discussion leadership |

30% | project and report |

Exams will be closed book and take approximately 1/2 of a class period. The exam information page contains detailed information on the requirements, structure, and grading of examinations for this course. You must also read the academic integrity page before taking an exam.

While you are responsible for all lecture and required readings, the following list outlines some of the most important topics likely to be covered on the exams for this course.

- graph theory
- types of graphs: simple, multigraph, weighted graph, digraphs
- graph and edge operations
- trees and bipartite graphs
- graph representation: incidence, adjacency, and path matrices
- degree and degree distribution
- assortativity
- connectivity: walks and paths, diameter, k-connected
- biconnected, articulation points and bridges,
*k*-connected - cliques and clustering coefficient
- centrality: degree, betweenness, closeness, and coreness
- special graphs: multilevel and multiprovider

- Internet topology
- multilevel, physical (fibre) vs. logical (router)
- multiprovider: tier-1 settlement-free backbones, tier-2 backbones, tier-3 access
- social network topology: undirected (friends) vs. directed (following) edges
- Web topology: bowtie model

- graph spectra
- Laplacian and algebraic connectivity concepts (you do
*not*need to memorise formulas for these - spectral properties (RCF – relative cumulative frequency) of physical (relatively linear) vs. logical (closer to step)
- regular networks
- linear and ring, Manhattan and toroid, tree and star, complete mesh
- motifs: repeating patters
- nearly regular constructions
- geometric graphs and their construction: model wireless connectivity
- gabriel graphs and their construction: model physical fibre networks

- interconnection networks
- crossbar elements (cross vs. turn) and switch fabrics (strictly non-blocking)
- MIN (multistage interconnection network) elements (straight vs. cross), recursive construction of fabrics, self-routing

- random graphs
- Erdős-Rényi vs. Gilbert construction
- connectivity and giant component: phase change when #edges similar to #vertices
- random geometric graphs and their construction: model wireless networks with only some node in range associated
- Waxman graphs and their construction: edge probability, long/vs short edge, max length (you do
*not*need to remember the formula): model logical IP networks

- small world networks
- social network properties:
*n*-degrees of separation - properties: diameter and transitivity
- cliques and clustering coefficient
- strong and weak ties: definition and role
- Watts-Strogatz small-world generation

- social network properties:
- scale-free networks
- self-similarity
- properties: power-law degree disributions
- preferential attachement concepts
- measured properties vs. structure and HOT (highly optimised tolerance)
- Watts-Strogatz small-world generation

- routing
- minimum-cost routing in weighted graphs
- link-state routing concepts and link-state flooding
- heirarchical scalability
- clustering and expanding-ring search

- network flows
- single-commodity flow optimisation concepts

- tussles
- tussle defintion and concepts
- example tussles: economics and trust
- network neutrality

- game theory
- rational choice and payoff/utility functions
- strategic game defintion and concepts
- prisoner's dilemma and dollar auction
- Nash equilibrium and Pareto optimiality
- global thermonuclear war

A major part of this course consists of presenting and discussing papers
from the research literature. All students are expected to read the
chosen papers ** before** the corresponding class. Each
student will be required to present and lead the discussion
of several papers during semester.

The class participation grade for each student will depend on students asking insightful questions of the presentation that clearly demonstrate that the assigned papers have been read before class. Additionally, a short quiz will be given at the beginning of each class to test comprehension of the required readings; this will contribute to half of the participation grade.

TBD

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